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Using these integrated circuits, it quickly turned possible to squeeze hundreds, hundreds, tens of millions, after which tons of of millions of miniaturized parts onto chips of silicon concerning the size of a finger nail. That’s how computers became smaller, cheaper, and rather more reliable from the 1960s onward. A fundamental circuit board is simply a rectangle of plastic with copper connecting tracks on one facet and many holes drilled by way of it.
- Research in these fields has led to the development of such key units as transistors, integrated circuits, lasers, and optical fibres.
- These in flip have made it possible to manufacture a